RAIBA (Reconfigurable Array of Inexpensive Batteries Architecture) is an intelligent battery-array management system applied in energy storage systems and electric-vehicle battery arrays. RAIBA features artificial-intelligence diagnostic and system-management software that, before and during operation, analyzes the composition of a battery array, simulates possible configurations, chooses and implements the best configuration to suit load requirements, bypasses depleted cells, and ensures optimal array operation and charge/discharge cycles.
RAIBA supports heterogeneous battery modules including new and old ones and even lithium-ion and lead-acid batteries in the same array. It also supports traditional homogeneous battery modules including the same battery age and type. It reduces system-level decay by 51% and extends system runtime by 90% for a set of heterogeneous 20-battery modules with capacity ranging from 1.5 to 4 Ah. RAIBA adds fail-safe and fail-operational functionalities to a battery system by dynamically reconfiguring the array to bypass modules nearing depletion, avoiding the shutdown occurring in traditional battery arrays when one module stops performing. By supporting a mix of old, new and heterogeneous battery modules in a large-scale green power storage system, RAIBA contributes to environmental protection and a sharing and circular economy through extending battery life and re-use. By not requiring a homogeneous array of new battery cells, RAIBA reduces the initial construction cost and total cost of ownership of energy storage systems by more than 50%.
RAIBA manages a battery array first by diagnostics, learning the electrochemical behaviors and other properties such as age of each module before charging and before use. After the initial diagnostic analysis, RAIBA’s AI system software dynamically simulates feasible configurations based on cell characteristics and system load requirements. It chooses the best configuration to serve specific loads based on the capacities and characteristics of modules, and immediately bypasses modules, if required, before use.
During use, RAIBA continually monitors the performance of all modules, maximizes the utilization of all modules by dynamically configuring to serve load requirement, and bypasses modules only when they are depleted or close to a constraint. When multiple modules are depleted, the system still will function at full potential because RAIBA transfers the required load to other performing modules. RAIBA’s real-time AI system management software also extends and optimizes charge/discharge cycles, because it ensures optimal utilization before requiring a recharge. RAIBA’s system management software provides preventative maintenance and maximum uptime through dynamic resource monitoring and allocation, avoiding the fixed connections, performance bottlenecks and system failures of traditional battery arrays.